The HORSE Project uses a dual-perspective approach to describe demonstration scenarios. Due to the inherent physicality of manufacturing, factories are traditionally considered from a layout perspective. The factory floor layout shows the location of work units and how work is directed from one work unit to the next. The HORSE Project views the physical position of work units and the flow of work as separate aspects of the manufacturing system.

The physical aspect is reduced to a system breakdown structure of the factory. The goal of such a depiction is to catalogue the entities present in the factory and how those entities are organised. The physical aspect is documented according to the physical hierarchy of IEC62264:2013. Figure 19 shows the physical hierarchy model recommended by IEC62264:2013.


Figure 19: Physical hierarchy of a manufacturing system, as recommended by IEC62264:2013

By adopting the structure of the physical hierarchy, open call applicants can describe the composition of their factory. It is not necessary to detail every work centre and work unit of the factory, but rather to show the position of the demonstration scenario in its physical context. To serve as an example, Figure 20 shows the physical hierarchy for Thomas Regout International (TRI), one of the three pilot cases of the HORSE Project. The demonstration scenario in this factory is part of the production line labelled “PL2.1: Loading.”


Figure 20: Thomas Regout International interpretation of physical hierarchy, with demonstration scenario as part of P2

A clear understanding of the physical composition of the factory makes it easier to model the manufacturing process. The end-to-end manufacturing process model should at least cover the activities performed at all production areas. The goal is to depict the dependencies between those activities. For example, the activities performed at P1 must always happen before P2, because P1 produces the material that must be treated in P2. This may seem obvious, but it is highly informative to a person not familiar with the factory.

The HORSE Project makes use of internal standards to model processes. Specifically, the Business Process Model & Notation 2.0 (BPMN2.0) is used for the purposes of the open calls. The following four model elements are used to model processes:

Table 2: Symbols used for the four elements used in process models






Actions performed by agents



Things that may happen during the execution of a process

Exclusive choice gateways

Exclusive choice gateways

A decision point that activates one of several process flows. Also used to merge alternative process flows into a single flow.

Parallel gateway

Parallel gateway

Splits the process flow into two or more active flows. Also used to merge two or more active process flows.




Links between activities, events and gateways that enable the process flow

The physical hierarchy (see Figure 19) can be created with any software package with simple drawing tools, such as MS Powerpoint. For the process models though, we recommend that the applicant downloads the Camunda BPM modeller, which can be found here. The following two process models should be created by the applicant:

  1. A contextual model of the end-to-end manufacturing process, of which the demonstration scenario is part of, and
  2. A descriptive model of the process involved in the demonstration itself.

We provide illustrative process models to give some insight into such models. Figure 21 shows the contextual process model of Thomas Regout International. The same three production areas are shown in three lanes. The storage area is not shown, because was deemed not important for the process view.


Figure 21: End-to-end process model of Thomas Regout International

The demonstration scenario at the Thomas Regout International factory is situated in production area P2. Figure 22 shows the process model of the demonstration scenario at Thomas Regout International. For the applicant, it is not necessary to be concerned with the detailed symbols shown on the figure, but to understand that this process modelling will be required.


Figure 22: Process model of the demonstration scenario at Thomas Regout International

Any of the models created by the applicant can be supplemented by a textual description to convey additional information about the problem or special considerations. The final step is to describe the expected change. By referring to tasks from the last process model (see Figure 22), the applicant can describe how the process and its tasks should change to demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology.